Changes of environmental conditions in the Arctic will result in significant alterations of the dynamics of sedimentation processes in the region. Pronounced changes are expected to occur at the sources with marked effects on biogenic elements and contaminants. The Barents Sea, a shallow sea with a complex bathymetry, is the most productive of the Arctic shelf seas. In many respects the Barents Sea can be looked upon as an indicator of changes that threaten the Arctic. Ecological processes and physical oceanography are well studied there. This book presents general knowledge on marine bottom sediments in the Barents Sea. It concentrates on recent sedimentary processes as well as the quantity and quality of deposited material. Moreover, the sediment regime for the Barents Sea, material sources and transport pathways (bio-production and terrestrial sources) are shown. The book discusses the problem of inorganic and organic contaminants in the Barents Sea since arctic marine sediments are the final sink for numerous pollutants.