The objective of this book is to summarize and critically assess the current status, development trends and needs of three basic defensive elements that safeguard the quality and environmental safety of soil and water/sediments: early warning monitoring, protection and remediation measures, with particular regard to the viability of methods and technologies, i.e. easiness-to-use, reliability, cost-effectiveness, high efficiency and non-destructive character of remediation that is of particular importance considering the scale of application. The priority aim of the book is to contribute to the improving maintenance of ecosystems, and specifically to summarize and add to information on how best to protect our soils and aquifers, prevent migration and mobilization of pollutants and how to enhance their degradation and/or immobilization. Mechanism of action is considered of the first priority, but optimization of technical construction/application details are of no lesser importance. In the permeable reactive barriers, and other preventive/remediation measures, a number of novel integrated physicochemical and biochemical methods are presented. The remediation solutions for soil pollution are focused on non-destructive methods such as phyto- and ecoremediation that would preserve soil properties during and after decontamination.