Modern complex large-scale dynamical systems exist in virtually every aspect of science and engineering, and are associated with a wide variety of physical, technological, environmental, and social phenomena, including aerospace, power, communications, and network systems, to name just a few. This book develops a general stability analysis and control design framework for nonlinear large-scale interconnected dynamical systems, and presents the most complete treatment on vector Lyapunov function methods, vector dissipativity theory, and decentralized control architectures. Large-scale dynamical systems are strongly interconnected and consist of interacting subsystems exchanging matter, energy, or information with the environment. The sheer size, or dimensionality, of these systems necessitates decentralized analysis and control system synthesis methods for their analysis and design. Written in a theorem-proof format with examples to illustrate new concepts, this book addresses continuous-time, discrete-time, and hybrid large-scale systems. It develops finite-time stability and finite-time decentralized stabilization, thermodynamic modeling, maximum entropy control, and energy-based decentralized control. This book will interest applied mathematicians, dynamical systems theorists, control theorists, and engineers, and anyone seeking a fundamental and comprehensive understanding of large-scale interconnected dynamical systems and control.