This book is the first one to be devoted to the analysis and interpretation of the lowest low fertility in the Southern part of Europe. It presents a comparative viewpoint and enables the readers to understand the peculiarities of a demographic situation that has characterized a vast part of Europe over the past three decades. The book places a particular emphasis on the cultural keywords, i.e. the connection between strong family ties and fertility. The observation of the European geography of the strong family and that of low fertility at the end of the twentieth century renders surprising coincidences. It is no simple task to clarify the behavioural processes underlying this geographical correspondence. This volume contains two different possible interpretations, which, though departing from similar premises, lead to quite distinct conclusions. This volume is of interest to demographers and social scientists, as well as to (doctoral) students of demography and social science.