Science and technology have become increasingly intertwined in the twentieth century. However, little attention has been paid to the forces that have brought about this condition. Indeed, many scholars have taken it simply for granted that causality always runs from science to technology. In this groundbreaking book, Rosenberg's research suggests that history and extensive empirical evidence lead to a reality that is far more complex as well as far more interesting. Here, Rosenberg's papers explore a wide range of pertinent issues, especially those connected with the innovative process, including the realms of electric power, electronics, chemicals, aircraft, medicine, instrumentation and, in particular, higher education and the organization of research activities.