The sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are a large group of anaerobic organisms that play an important role in many biogeochemical processes. Not only are they of early origins in the development of the biosphere, but their mechanisms of energy metabolism shed light on the limits of life processes in the absence of oxygen. They are widely distributed in nature, and are regular components of engineered systems including, for example, petroleum reservoirs and oil production facilities. SRB are currently subject to extensive genomic studies, which are yielding fresh understanding of their basic biochemical mechanisms, and aiding in the development of novel techniques for the analyses of their environmental roles. This volume provides a timely update on these important microorganisms, from basic science to applications, and will therefore serve as a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in the fields of microbial ecology, microbial physiology, bioengineering, biogeochemistry and related areas of environmental science.