The advent of fiber optic transmission systems and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) have led to a dramatic increase in the usable bandwidth of single fiber systems. This book provides detailed coverage of survivability (dealing with the risk of losing large volumes of traffic data due to a failure of a node or a single fiber span) and traffic grooming (managing the increased complexity of smaller user requests over high capacity data pipes), both of which are key issues in modern optical networks. A framework is developed to deal with these problems in wide-area networks, where the topology used to service various high-bandwidth (but still small in relation to the capacity of the fiber) systems evolves toward making use of a general mesh. Effective solutions, exploiting complex optimization techniques, and heuristic methods are presented to keep network problems tractable. Newer networking technologies and efficient design methodologies are also described.