As the residential buildings sector accounts for around 30 percent of the final energy demand in Germany, this sector is increasingly becoming the focus of public attention with regard to climate change. In this book, decisions on energy consumption by private households are examined. The analyses are based on several empirical methods. The results show that the road to more sustainable energy consumption in residential buildings is not hampered by a lack of will on behalf of the consumers. However one should be realistic that there are many instances where improving thermal institution involves additional economic costs for individual households.