This book demonstrates and develops the quantitative and formal links between sustainability issues, decision and precaution problems in the management of natural resources. Applied concerns include fisheries, agriculture, biodiversity, exhaustible resources and pollution. The book aims at combining economic and ecological dimensions through an integrated modelling framework. Mathematical or numerical models and methods presented here rely on control theory of dynamical systems. They encompass equilibrium and stability, viability and invariance, intertemporal optimality ranging from discounted utilitarian to Rawlsian criteria. Deterministic, stochastic and robust frameworks are examined. In order to simplify the mathematical content, the proposed models and methods are restricted to the case of discrete time dynamics.Numerous examples are proposed together with computer programs.