With the large-scale utilization of forest biomass for energy still in its infancy, there is an urgent need to understand the short- and long-term consequences of intensive forest biomass harvesting - both on the forest ecosystem and on forest economics. Sustainable Use of Forest Biomass for Energy draws on the vast body of knowledge of forest ecology and management in the Nordic-Baltic region, with the aim of bridging the gap between scientific knowledge and general principles on the one hand, and more concrete practical forest management and policy development on the other. The focus on the Nordic and Baltic countries makes it possible to compare two groups of countries in Europe which have similar ecological conditions, but substantial differences in both their economic frameworks and, consequently, their need to overcome barriers to increased use of forest biomass for energy. In this ground-breaking book, Nordic and Baltic scientists from ecological, economic, social, and technological disciplines join forces to synthesize current knowledge, generate new data, describe cases, and create a solid basis for the future development of management recommendations for forest energy harvesting and wood ash recycling. Providing tools and information for improved evaluation the real sustainability of a given management regime, this book is indispensable reading for forest scientists and managers, forest extension, forest and energy policy makers and the energy sector.