This book is a collection of papers presented at the 2009 meeting of the Fodder Crops and Amenity grasses section of Eucarpia. It provides a unique source of information on the most recent results on genetic diversity and breeding in forage crops and turf species from Europe and overseas. It is organised in five sections. The first section is devoted to genetic resources which are the source of diversity for breeding but also a source of information for a better preservation of diversity through biogeography approaches. The second section focuses on changes which may occur in grassland and turf swards. These swards are plant communities which are likely to experience species and genetic changes. Population genetics provides keys to understand these changes in order to take them into account during breeding and sward management. The third section documents the genetic gains achieved during breeding while the fourth one gives a detailed presentation of the results and potential of molecular biology to better use the genetic diversity. Eventually, the fifth section investigates the potential of new structures of varieties either exploiting the heterosis or the interspecific hybridization.