This book presents both general and comprehensive observations of unsuccessful and successful experiences in water pollution trading programs within the U.S. These experiences help in understanding the major environmental, economic and regulatory barriers that prevent the application of pollution trading in water media to become successful. Chapter 1 explains the background and history of water quality and water pollution control policy and management. Chapter 2 provides the economic background regarding pollution trading and essential elements for setting water quality trading programs. Fundamental elements to understand the water pollution problem and factors needed for establishing water quality trading programs are thoroughly discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 present overall (generic) and comprehensive (specific) experiences (problems and success) regarding water quality trading with in the U.S. Finally, Chapter 5 provides suggested approaches for potential application and development of water quality trading programs. This work combines background information with real experience, and gives recommendations for anyone who wants to understand actual roles of trading and is interested in the development of a water quality trading program in the future.