The book deals with biological, mathematical, descriptive, causal and systemic phyllotaxis. It aims at reflecting the widest possible range of ideas and research closely related to phyllotaxis and contains 30 well illustrated chapters.The book has three parts of equal importance. The first two parts concern data collecting, pattern recognition and pattern generation to which students of phyllotaxis are well accustomed. The third part is devoted to the problem of origins of phyllotactic patterns, giving the field of phyllotaxis the universality it requires to be fully understood.Phyllotaxis-like patterns are found in places where genes are not necessarily present. Part III concerns general comparative morphology, homologies with phyllotactic patterns, and recent trends on evolution that can help to understand phyllotaxis.The distinguished researchers who accepted to participate in the production of this book, strongly contributed to the field of phyllotaxis in the past and have devoted a lot of their time to the fascinating subject coming up with most valuable findings, or are newcomers with original ideas that may be very relevant for the future of the field. The book summarizes and updates their contributions, and promotes new avenues in the treatment of phyllotaxis.This book on mathematical and biological phyllotaxis is the first collective book ever. A landmark in the history of phyllotaxis.