This book concentrates on the method recently developed to study the surfaces of synthetic polymeric membranes using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). AFM is becoming a very important tool for the characterization of synthetic polymeric membranes. The development of membranes for improved performance depends on the exact knowledge of the morphology of a thin selective layer that exists at the surface of the membrane. The control of the morphology of the selective layer is crucial for the design of synthetic polymeric membranes. With a relatively short history of twenty-five years, AFM has firmly established its position as a means of characterizing the membrane surface. Each chapter includes information on the basic principles, commercial applications, an overview of current research and guidelines for future research. Each also includes a summary and comprehensive list of references. The book covers all aspects of AFM studies on the characterization of synthetic polymeric membranes. This book is well-suited for academic researchers who are investigating synthetic membranes, as well as R&D staff who wish to improve and control the quality of synthetic membranes for various purposes, and is also of interest to a wider range of readers, as synthetic membranes are now considered to be one of the most important tools in the areas of seawater desalination, waste-water treatment, water production, food processing, treatment of pharmaceutical products, air and water purification, separation of chemical and petrochemical products, drug release and other biomedical applications.