This volume contains six peer-refereed articles written on the occasion of the workshop Operator theory, system theory and scattering theory: multidimensional generalizations and related topics, held at the Department of Mathematics of the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev during the period June 26-July 1, 2005. The papers present the newest developments in key directions of current research in complex analysis and operator theory. Topics considered include Schur analysis, hierarchical semiseparable matrices, canonical forms for pairs of quaternionic matrices, the theory of homogeneous operators, algebras of fractions of continuous functions, and moment problems. Schur analysis in its various aspects occupies more than half of the volume, and moments problems have also an important place in the papers presented here. The volume will be of interest to a wide audience of pure and applied mathematicians, electrical engineers and theoretical physicists.