Although the importance of context has been emphasized by temperament researchers, until now there has been remarkably little systematic research on the unique role specific aspects of context play in the development and impact of temperament. The goal of this volume is to systematize current knowledge and theory on the role played by specific aspects of context in the etiology, expression, and influence of temperament, particularly for those aspects of temperament that are most likely to relate to later personality traits. Reflecting the editors' view that the interface between temperament and context is a bidirectional phenomenon, this volume focuses on two broad issues: 1) How does context moderate the expression, continuity, or consequences of individual differences in introversion-extraversion, sociability, emotionality, and inhibition (the I-ESEI family of traits)? 2) How do individual differences in the I-ESEI family of traits moderate the nature of characteristics of the individual's context? By bringing together outstanding international researchers who present their current research and theories, the editors systematize research contributions in the domain of contextual contributions to the I-ESIA family of traits and set the agenda for future research directions. Appropriate for use by scholars and practitioners in developmental science and family studies.