The inherent advantages and potential payoffs of the terahertz (THz) regime for military and security applications serve as an important driver for interest in new THz-related science and technology. In particular, the very rapid growth in more recent years is arguably most closely linked to the potential payoffs of THz sensing and imaging (THz-S&I).This book presents some of the leading fundamental research efforts towards the realization of practical THz-S&I capabilities for military and security applications. Relevant subjects include theoretical prediction and/or measurement of THz spectroscopic phenomenon in solid-state materials such as high explosives (e.g. HMX, PETN, RDX, TNT, etc.), carbon-fiber composites, biological agents (e.g. DNA, RNA, proteins, amino acids) and organic-semiconductor nanostructures. Individual papers also address the effective utilization of state-of-the-art THz-frequency technology in military and security relevant scenarios such as standoff S&I, screening of packages and personnel, and perimeter defense. Technical papers introduce novel devices and/or concepts that enhance THz source and detector performance, enabling completely new types of sensor functionality at THz frequency (e.g. detection at nanoscale/molecular levels), and defining new and innovative sensing modalities (e.g. remote personnel identification) for defense and security. Therefore, the collective research presented here represents a valuable source of information on the evolving field of THz-S&I for military and security applications.