This unique group of authors from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia, have all achieved individual doctoral theses on various aspects of Arctic and Antarctic research. Ivan Frolov, whose speciality is oceanography, has completed a study of Arctic Ice Cover, researching ice distribution in the seas of the Russian Arctic and has authored 70 scientific papers. Zalman Gudkovich's main area of research remains ice motion in the Arctic Ocean and seas of the Siberian Shelf, and he has contributed to 150 scientific publications and proceedings. Vladimir Radionov, whose international research projects have included a joint US/Russian Arctic atlas and a major Arctic climatology project, is the co-author of some 60 scientific related publications. Alexander Shirochkov has participated in three winter long Antarctic expeditions and is now head of the Ionospheric Research Laboratory of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. He has more than 100 scientific papers to his name and has contributed to several collective scientific books. Leonid Timokhov also worked on the joint US/Russian Arctic Atlas and the Arctic Climatology project and is the author and co-author of some 120 scientific publications and proceedings. This extremely experienced group of researchers and authors are ideally suited to write this book.