The first part of the book reviews the multi-level system of protection currently operating in Europe and its constitutional implications. The Charter is analysed from a legal, political and practical standpoint. The activity of the European Parliament as a fundamental rights actor will also be examined, as well as the right to a fair trial and to effective judicial protection before and by the EU Courts. The second part of the volume addresses the impact of a binding Charter on specific areas of EU Law. The order in which the contributions have been set out reflects the structure of the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union: free circulation of persons; the internal market; the area of freedom security and justice (civil and criminal aspects); social rights protection; environmental policy; enlargement; international trade and the Common Foreign and Security Policy.