This is the first book containing an overall survey of natural product distribution pattern variation. Presented in this book is an overview of geographic patterns in the distribution of plant secondary metabolites in natural populations. Following an introduction that includes definitions of phytochemical and biogeographic ideas, information is presented in five loosely defined categories: (1) trans-oceanic disjunctions; (2) examples within continents; (3) after the ice; (4) oceanic islands; and (5) polar disjunctions. Typical examples include variation in antiherbivore or antifungal properties of plant chemicals; or subtle changes in floral pigmentation and patterning that could affect pollinator behavior. Many systems of this sort have provided challenges for chemical-ecological research, and many of the examples compiled in this book would likely do the same.