This book is a unique and thoughtful blend of critical background information and advances made in a multitude of areas of contemporary islet research. It is an essential reference book, the first of its kind in many years, for professionals as well as for the beginners interested in the study of islet physiology and diabetes. The book is unique in its breadth: it deals with anatomy, histology, ultra-structure, evolution and comparative anatomy, imaging, developmental biology, programming, apoptosis, mitochondrial function, metabolism, cellular signaling, electrophysiology, oscillation of hormone secretion, islets of model animals, immunology, proteomics, regenerative medicine, clinical advances, islet transplantation, and finally islet tumors. Individual chapters contributed by over a hundred experts and enthusiasts, not only provide a balanced view of the recent advances made in the respective fields, but also provide directions and thoughts for future research. Thanks to vivid and colorful illustrations, tables and sketches, the book as a whole, and the individual chapters make reading a pleasant experience. It is a valuable compilation that one would love to possess personally and buy as a present to a colleague.