Eleven chapters present a concise description of the soils of Israel, including their distribution, chemical, physical mineralogical characteristics and agricultural attributes. On the background of the various soil-forming factors such as climate, lithology and physiography the pathways of their formation is discussed. Based on the relationships between soils and soil-forming factors, the distribution of the different soil types is explained. An ample bibliography backs up this exposition, supplemented by numerous figures, tables, colour plates and maps. The description of the contemporaneous surface soils is supplemented by a review of the numerous paleosols with their paleogeographic significance.