The past few years have seen a resurgence of interest in ontology and what might be called 'biophilosophy'. This book argues that the notion of individuation is essential for a critical grasp of the origins and prospects of this philosophical conjuncture. Historically, it demonstrates the importance of Kant's treatment of the organism, which recast the problem of individuation in terms of vital autonomy and mechanical heteronomy. Staging the crisis of the Kantian solution in the writings of Nietzsche and Whitehead, it goes on to construct a new concept of individuation in a bold and detailed investigation of the writings of Charles Sanders Peirce, Gilbert Simondon and Gilles Deleuze - three crucial figures in the elaboration of a transcendental materialism. The Theatre of Production thus takes the problem of individuation into the realm of modernity, providing a unique and vibrant contribution to contemporary debates in European philosophy.