This book deals with the recent theory of function spaces as it stands now. Special attention is paid to some developments in the last 1015 years which are closely related to the nowadays numerous applications of the theory of function spaces to some neighbouring areas such as numerics, signal processing and fractal analysis. In particular, typical building blocks as (non-smooth) atoms, quarks, wavelet bases and wavelet frames are discussed in detail and applied afterwards to some outstanding problems of the recent theory of function spaces such as a local smoothness theory, fractal measures, fractal analysis, spaces on Lipschitz domains and on quasi-metric spaces. The book is essentially self-contained, although it might also be considered as the continuation of the two previous books of the author with the same title which appeared as volumes 78 and 84 in this book series. It is directed to mathematicians working in analysis, numerics and fractal geometry, and to (theoretical) physicists interested in related subjects such as signal processing.