Thermophotovoltaics is the science and technology associated with the direct generation of electricity from high temperature heat. Potential applications include combined heat and power, portable and auxiliary power, radioisotope space power, industrial waste heat recovery and concentrated solar power. This book aims at serving as an introduction to the underlying theory, overview of present day components and system arrangements, and update of the latest developments in the field. The emphasis is placed on the understanding of the critical aspects of efficient thermophotovoltaic system design. The aim is to assist researchers in the field.