This monograph presents recent contributions to the topics of almost periodicity and almost automorphy. Several new methods, including the methods of invariant subspaces and uniform spectrum, as well as various classical methods, such as fixed point theorems, are used to obtain almost periodic and almost automorphic solutions to some linear and non-linear evolution equations and dynamical systems. Almost periodicity and almost automorphy are also intensively developed on the more general structures called fuzzy-number type spaces. They have further potential applications to the study of differential equations, which model the real-world problems governed by imprecision due to uncertainty or vagueness, rather than randomness. In conclusion, the author indicates several open problems and directions for future research. This monograph is a great source of information and inspiration for researchers and graduate students from many mathematical fields.