Recent advancements in nano/micro materials and related characterization approaches allow the design of a new type of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) with enhanced multifunctional behaviour. This is chance is also supported by the recent achievements in modelling and signal processing. This book provides the state of art of the research activity of two successful European projects, TAMIRUT and SIGHT, addressing an integrated system, encompassing the contrast agent, the hardware equipment and the processing strategies, as a key tool for a combined diagnostic and therapeutic approaches (theranostics) in medical ultrasound. The work provides a highlight of the state of art in the research of novel ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). Main progresses on the multifunctional aspects of next-generation UCAs concern targeting and drug release properties, perfusion and biointerface behaviour, ultrasound scattering performance, signal processing, electronic equipment.