This book starts from the conviction that there are other ways of knowing about nature besides science. Notably, literary documents (novels, plays, poems) on nature and the natural entities (landscapes, animals, plant forms) may be based on careful observations, quite elaborate and true to life. Comparative epistemology is the discipline that tries to assess, in a critical manner, the relative validity and value of various knowledge forms. This volume presents a series of case studies in comparative epistemology, critically comparing the works of prominent representatives of the life sciences (such as Aristotle, Darwin, Mendel and many others) with the writings of their literary counterparts (Andersen, Melville, Verne, Ibsen, and many others). It constitutes a major contribution to the expanding field of Science and Literature Studies, allowing basic insights from the sciences and the humanities to mutually challenge and enlighten one another.