This proceedings volume consists of papers presented at the Variational Analysis and Aerospace Engineering conference held in Erice, Italy in September 2007 at the International School of Mathematics, Guido Stampacchia. The workshop provided a platform for aerospace engineers and mathematicians (from universities, research centers and industry) to discuss the advanced problems requiring an extensive application of mathematics. Important mathematical methods have been developed and extensively applied in the field of aerospace engineering. Topics and contributions at the workshop concentrated on the most advanced mathematical methods in engineering such as computational fluid dynamics methods, the introduction of new materials, theory of optimization, optimization methods applied in aerodynamics, theory of structures, space missions, flight mechanics, theories of control, algebraic geometry for CAD applications, and variational methods and applications. Advanced graduated students, researchers, and professionals in mathematics and engineering will find this volume useful. This work is dedicated to Professor Angelo Miele, an eminent mathematician and engineer, on the occasion of his 85th birthday.