This work seeks to propose a methodological basis for regional development analysis based on vector calculus. Existing taxonomic methods are developed further in order to assess regions and micro-regions with regard to their socio-economic and environmental development. In addition to its methodological contribution, this book thus contributes to a framework of comparative assessment of regions and an analysis of underlying factors for regional development and investment decisions. In order to simplify the practical implementation of the presented concepts, the author proposes an IT application with the ability to examine spatial relations among groups of variables. The empirical research presented in this context relates to data from Polish counties as a case study.