Interactions between waves and mean flows play a crucial role in understanding the long-term aspects of atmospheric and oceanographic modelling. Indeed, our ability to predict climate change hinges on our ability to model waves accurately. This book gives a modern account of the nonlinear interactions between waves and mean flows such as shear flows and vortices. A detailed account of the theory of linear dispersive waves in moving media is followed by a thorough introduction to classical wavesAimean interaction theory. The author then extends the scope of the classical theory and lifts its restriction to zonally symmetric mean flows. The book is a fundamental reference for graduate students and researchers in fluid mechanics, and can be used as a text for advanced courses; it will also be appreciated by geophysicists and physicists who need an introduction to this important area in fundamental fluid dynamics and atmosphere-ocean science.