The book comprises the proceedings of the 7th International Wheat Conference, held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, at the end of 2005. Leading scientists from all over the world, specialized in different areas that contribute to the better understanding of wheat production and use, reviewed the present achievements and discussed the future challenges for the wheat crop. The latter are related to producing safe wheat grain in increasingly stressed environments, maintaining at the same time the sustainability of natural resources, in order to meet the needs of food for a growing population. Topics such as breeding for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, breeding for improved industrial and nutritional quality, crop and natural resources management, physiology of wheat production, biotechnology and cytogenetics, and conservation and management of genetic resources were covered during the Conference. Results of the extended use of molecular tools in different areas and their contribution to the faster achievement of breeding goals were presented.