The chapters in this volume arise from a conference, Why Europe? Problems of Culture and Identity, held at Keele University. Concentrating on questions of history, origins, culture and citizenship, the contributors seek to evaluate the extent to which a specifically European identity has begun to emerge, and what profile this identity is beginning to take. This volume, alongside its companion volume, Why Europe? Problems of Culture and Identity: Media, Film, Gender, Youth and Education, addresses a range of issues which underlie the notions of European identity. Among them are: What does it mean to be a European? What ideologies have shaped the political debate over the last two centuries? What place will minorities find in the Europe of the twenty-first century? What roles will women play in the future communities? Will Europe become more open to diversity, or become increasingly introspective, a fortress Europe?