How equal is women's participation in politics across Europe today? Do women have 'full citizenship' when it comes to political influence and public decision-making? How have the gender discourses changed within the integrating Europe? How is the concept of equality understood in the post-communist states in Eastern and Central Europe? What kind of influence does European integration have on women's rights and entitlements? This book attempts to answer these burning questions by bringing together work from experts across Europe. The book addresses particularly the East-West relations within European politics as well as in theoretical feminist approaches and practical women's rights promotion. It examines post-Soviet politics on women's rights, equality discourses and the influence of the European Union on gender mainstreaming. The book outlines the current state of political participation and the role of citizenship in Europe in relation to protection of women's rights as human rights in the era of far-reaching political and ideological changes and globalization of the economy in Europe.