Linking of materials properties with microstructures is a fundamental theme in materials science, for which a detailed knowledge of the modern characterization techniques is essential. Since modern materials such as high-temperature alloys, engineering thermoplastics and multilayer semiconductor films have many elemental constituents distributed in more than one phase, characterization is essential to the systematic development of such new materials and understanding how they behave in practical applications. X-ray techniques play a major role in providing information on the elemental composition and crystal and grain structures of all types of materials.The challenge to the materials characterization expert is to understand how specific instruments and analytical techniques can provide detailed information about what makes each material unique. The challenge to the materials scientist, chemist, or engineer is to know what information is needed to fully characterize each material and how to use this information to explain its behavior, develop new and improved properties, reduce costs, or ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. This comprehensive handbook presents all the necessary background to understand the applications of X-ray analysis to materials characterization with particular attention to the modern approach to these methods.