Agent-based modeling and social simulation have emerged as both developments of and challenges to the social sciences. The developments include agent-based computational economics and investigations of theoretical sociological concepts using formal simulation techniques. Among the challenges are the development of qualitative modeling techniques, implementation of agent-based models to investigate phenomena for which conventional economic, social, and organizational models have no face validity, and the application of physical modeling techniques to social processes. Bringing together diverse approaches to social simulation and research agendas, this book presents a unique collection of contributions from the First World Congress on Social Simulation, held in 2006 in Kyoto, Japan. The work emerged from the collaboration of the Pacific Asian Association for Agent-Based Approach in Social Systems Sciences, the North American Association for Computational Social and Organizational Science, and the European Social Simulation Association.