Approximation methods are vital in many challenging applications of computational science and engineering. This is a collection of papers from world experts in a broad variety of relevant applications, including pattern recognition, machine learning, multiscale modelling of fluid flow, metrology, geometric modelling, tomography, signal and image processing. It documents recent theoretical developments which have lead to new trends in approximation, it gives important computational aspects and multidisciplinary applications, thus making it a perfect fit for graduate students and researchers in science and engineering who wish to understand and develop numerical algorithms for the solution of their specific problems. An important feature of the book is that it brings together modern methods from statistics, mathematical modelling and numerical simulation for the solution of relevant problems, with a wide range of inherent scales. Contributions of industrial mathematicians, including representatives from Microsoft and Schlumberger, foster the transfer of the latest approximation methods to real-world applications.