Interest in the humane and scientifically justifiable use of research animals has intensified since the publication of the 2nd edition of Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research. This completely revised and updated edition will provide information essential to any researcher interested in using animal models for cardiovascular research, or any research which requires normal cardiovascular function. The format and presentation will be changed to make the text more easy to read and use: (1) This edition is in outline format, for ease and utility. (2) The opening chapter includes more information on the cardiovascular effects of post-operative analgesia and will address the recognition of pain behavior in species commonly used in research settings, particularly rats and mice. (3) New edition includes reference material more useful to researchers using transgenic and naturally occurring animal models to dissect these mechanisms.