Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment 4 focuses on: - Environmental aspects of agricultural practices - Field characterization and quantification of chemical constituents - Fate of contaminants in the environment/environmental monitoring - Thermal treatment technologies - Remediation of contaminated sites - Wastewater treatment and sludge management - Environmental Security - Risk Assessment and Environmental Management This volume is the proceedings of the first CPE conference in the new millennium and the thirteenth in a well-established series of conferences on Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment, first established in 1976. With support of the U.S. EPA, the series of conferences provides an opportunity for interdisciplinary exchange of ideas among international specialists, from diverse fields and backgrounds, on the chemical aspects of environmental protection. Over the years, the CPE conferences have gathered participants from more and more countries, and the scope of interests has been broadened. Held in Hilo, Hawaii, this was the first of these international conferences to take place in the United States. The Organizing Committee attracted a wide range of talented scientists and engineers to the conference, who have useful ideas to contribute on how to clean our environment. Any pollution control or pollution cure action today must take into consideration not only one element of the environment, like water, air or soil but also proper environmental handling and related problems. In all cases, chemical processes play a highly significant role. In recent years there has been a shift from wastewater technologies and pollutant monitoring problems to environment management and solid wastes issues. This book provides a forum for chemical scientists and engineers who are dedicated to the worthy mission of making a cleaner, healthier world for everyone. The central goals of Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment are to improve technology transfer and scientific dialogue, thereby leading to better comprehension of and solution to a broad spectrum of environmentally related problems.