This monograph, entirely devoted to Convection in Fluids, presents a unified rational approach of various convective phenomena in fluids (mainly considered as a thermally perfect gas or an expansible liquid), where the main driving mechanism is the buoyancy force (Archimedean thrust) or temperature-dependent surface tension in homogeneities (Marangoni effect). Also, the general mathematical formulation (for instance, in the Bénard problem - heated from below) and the effect of free surface deformation are taken into account. In the case of atmospheric thermal convection, the Coriolis force and stratification effects are also considered. This volume gives a rational and analytical analysis of the above mentioned physical effects on the basis of the full unsteady Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NS-F) equations - for a Newtonian compressible viscous and heat-conducting fluid - coupled with the associated initials (at initial time), boundary (lower-at the solid plane) and free surface (upper-in contact with ambiant air) conditions. This, obviously, is not an easy but a necessary task if we have in mind a rational modelling process, and work within a numerically coherent simulation on a high speed computer.