The growing global population poses the challenge to the scientific community of doubling or tripling the food, feed and fiber production by the year 2050. Biotechnology can make a significant contribution to this effort. This volume reviews the use of biotechnology in cotton, which is the leading plant fiber crop worldwide and grown commercially in more than 50 countries. Renowned experts highlight the success of Bt cotton, the introduction of second and third generation traits and the impact at all levels of farming. Furthermore, the molecular advances being made in cotton biotechnology and the potential traits that will come to market in the next decade are described in detail.