The second edition of Difficult Decisions in Thoracic Surgery: An Evidence- Based Approach addresses the growing complexity of decision making in thoracic surgery. More than half of the clinical questions posed in this book are new, and of the questions that remain as holdovers from the previous edition, virtually all have been revised and updated.As new technology is introduced, physicians from nonsurgical specialties offer alternative and competing therapies for what was once the exclusive province of the thoracic surgeon. In addition, there is increasing knowledge regarding the efficacy of traditional thoracic surgical therapies. How to select among these varied and complex approaches is becoming increasingly difficult. Concise chapters are devoted to one or two specific questions, or decisions, in general thoracic surgery that are difficult or controversial. The authors identify relevant publications in their selected topics, grade the quality of the evidence offered by those reports, apply that knowledge to objective management recommendations in an idealized world, and then comment on how they personally use the information in their own clinical practices.The book is a valuable reference source for practicing surgeons, surgeons in training, and educators.