This volume will review the most recent advances in the understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms for immune responses and immune regulation. Chapters in the first portion of this book will discuss the theoretical basis for current immunotherapies for autoimmune diseases. The second portion of the book will provide an updated review on the research behind the clinical trials/immunotherapies (e.g. T-cell vaccination, antibody therapy, etc.) in the areas of autoimmune diseases by the principal investigators of these studies. These chapters will discuss clinical and basic research as well as immunological data in the context of cellular and molecular mechanisms of the therapies. The book will finish with chapters by leaders in the field who will provide expert views on challenges and future directions.