The discovery of mirror neurons and of a mirror neuron system in the human brain raises the interesting possibility that mirroring may constitute novel instances of mental simulation. It also provides the basis for unique processes such as mindreading, the ability to make inferences about the actions of others. That an elementary process in motor cognition may be foundational to mindreading goes a long way in providing a rational basis for the study of social cognition. Social cognition is a broad discipline that encompasses many issues not yet adequately addressed by neurobiologists. In Mirror Neuron Systems: The Role of Mirroring Processes in Social Cognition, leading thinkers in this nascent field craft chapters aimed at sparking a dialogue regarding the relevance of mirroring neural systems in cognition. Thought-provoking and cutting-edge, Mirror Neuron Systems: The Role of Mirroring Processes in Social Cognition provides the basis for extended discussion among interested readers and lays down the guidelines for future research in this fascinating and expanding field. It addresses issues common to different perspectives, raises contrary views, and creates the basis for an extended dialogue and discussion.