For over 50 years, the mission of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has been to conduct and support basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases with the ultimate goal of improving the health of individuals in the United States and around the world. As part of its mission to foster biomedical discovery and to reduce the burden of human disease, NIAID is committed to encouraging the accelerated translation of biomedical discoveries into effective clinical care and public health practice throughout the world. In pursuit of this goal and its disease-specific scientific objectives, NIAID seeks to broaden research opportunities and collaborations involving scientists and institutions outside the United States. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH: Volume 1, Frontiers in Research contains presentations given at the 2006 NIAID Research Conference held in Opatija, Croatia which brought internationally known researchers from the United States and Central and Eastern Europe to focus together on shared interests in microbiology, infectious disease, HIV/AIDS, and basic and clinical immunology. Some of the topics covered include emerging and re-emerging infections, the development of infectious disease prophylactics and therapeutics, drug resistance, and various topics in immunomodulation, autoimmunity, infections and immunity, and the development of vaccines. Extensive and in-depth, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH: Volume 1, Frontiers in Research is a valuable, comprehensive guide to the state of research today.