This second edition presents up-to-date material on the theory of weak convergance of convolution products of probability measures in semigroups, the theory of random walks on semigroups, and their applications to products of random matrices. In addition, this unique work examines the essentials of abstract semigroup theory and its application to concrete semigroups of matrices. This substantially revised text includes exercises at various levels at the end of each section and includes the best available proofs on the most important theorems used in a book, making it suitable for a one semester course on semigroups. In addition, it could also be used as a main text or supplementary material for courses focusing on probability on algebraic structures or weak convergence. This book is ideally suited to graduate students in mathematics, and students in other fields, such as engineering and the sciences with an interest in probability. Students in statistics using advanced probability will also find this book useful.