The primary purpose of this book is to tell the reader what plant biotechnology is all about progressing from its roots in the basic sciences to its current applications in the biological and agricultural sciences, industry, and medicine. These widespread applications signal the fact that plant biotechnology is increasingly gaining in importance. This is because it impinges on so many facets of our lives, particularly in connection with global warming, alternative energy initiatives, food production, and medicine. The book also addresses the fact that some aspects of plant biotechnology may have some risks. These are covered in the last section. The individual chapters of the book are organized according to the following format: chapter title, chapter outline, introduction to the chapter, chapter topics and text, conclusions and references cited for further reading. This format is designed to help the reader grasp and understand the inherent complexity of plant biotechnology better.