Novel system performance through nanostructuring has been recognized in many branches of science in the last decades. The requirement for inventing a new technology paradigm has created research opportunities for scientists in very wide range of disciplines. In order to fully realize the tremendous potential of nanostructure science and technology, the extremely important challenges today are how to exploit synthetic methods for structures regulated at the atomic scale and to construct materials across the hierarchy of length scales from the atomic to mesoscopic and/or to macroscopic scale. This book comprises an overview of a wide variety of different approaches towards the synthesis of nanoscale materials and the hierarchical assemblies produced from them under the common theme of self-organization mechanisms via chemical and bio-inspired methods. The book covers many of the exciting and recent developments from basic research to applications in the field of self-assembly of nanostructures that are of general interest to a broad community of established and postgraduate researchers in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and materials science.