Concerns over dwindling fossil fuel reserves and impending climate changes have focused attention worldwide on the need to discover alternative, sustainable energy sources and fuels. Biofuels, already produced on a massive industrial scale, are seen as one answer to these problems. However, very real concerns over the effects of biofuel production on food supplies, with some of ht recent increases in worldwide food costs attributable to biofuel production, have lead to the realization that new, non-food substrates for biofuel production must be bought online. This book is an authoritative, comprehensive, up-to-date review of the various options under development for the production of advanced biofuels as alternative energy sources. A general overview and introductory chapters for each section place the field in the context as well as provide essential basic notions for the more general reader. Accomplished, internationally recognized experts carrying out research on individual focus areas contribute specific technical chapters detailing present progress and future prospects.