Vanilloids mediate their effects by selective agonism of an ion channel, the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is a ligand-gated, non-selective, cation channel preferentially expressed in small-diameter, primary afferent neurons, including nociceptive sensory nerves. In addition to be activated by capsaicin and related vanilloids, TRPV1 responds to heat and extracellular acidification, and will integrate simultaneous exposures to these stimuli. The aim of this book is to summarize recent insights in the role of TRPV1 in pain and inflammation, and to discuss how modulation of this receptor may lead to important advances in analgesic drug development. Insights into the prospects for the therapeutic potential of TRPV1 activation or inhibition, particularly in various painful or inflammatory conditions, are provided. The volume is written for basic scientists and clinicians interested in the mechanisms of pain, inflammation and the treatment of these conditions.